Internal Commands

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These commands are automatic loaded into the memory when operating system is loaded into the memory. Thus these are also called memory-resident commands. The command available are all combined together and are stored in Command.com file, which is a executable command file. These internal command are further grouped according to their properties. These are as follows.

Genral purpose

File related commands Directory related commands
1. CLS
2. DIR
3. VER
4. VOL
5. DATE
6. TIME
7. COPY CON
8. TYPE
9. COPY
10. REN
11. DEL
12. MD
13. CD
14. RD


General purpose commands

1. CLS:- (Clear the screen) This command is used to clear the screen or wipe out every thing written on the screen.

Syntax:-    C:\> CLS   and press Enter

2. DIR:- (Directory) Dir command is used for listing files and directories present in the current disk.

Syntax:-  C:\> DIR [/switches]

Example:-   C:\> DIR /P

 

Switches:-

/P  Page wise
/W  Widths wise
/S  List all files and directory of subdirectories
/AH  Display directory with hidden files
/AS  Display directory with system files
/AD  Display only directories present in current drive

3. VER:-(Version) Version numbers indicates that which edition of DOS we are working on.

Syntax:-  C:\> VER   press enter

Output:-
C:\>VER

Windows 98 [Version 4.10.2222]

4. VOL:-(Volume) Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if it exist.

Syntax:- C:\> VOL  press enter
Output:-C:\>VOL

Volume in drive C is JAI
Volume Serial Number is 3E42-1907


5. DATE:- Display the current Date

Syntax:-  C:\> DATE
C:\>DATE
Current date is Fri 02-15-2002
Enter new date (mm-dd-yy):

Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and
a prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same date.
Note:- We enter new date in the format of MM-DD-YY.

6. TIME:- Display current time

Syntax:- C:\> TIME
C:\>TIME
Current time is 8:38:47.70a
Enter new time:


Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same time.

Note:- We enter the time in the format of 24 hour clock.


File related commands

7. COPY CON:- This command gives the facility to create a new text file.

Syntax:-  C:\> COPY CON <Filename>
C:\>COPY CON Rose.txt
A clock in a office can never get stolen
Too many employees watch it all the time
^Z
1 file(s) copied


After copy con we must specify a suitable file name. Press enter. Start typing the informations of the file. After gathering the information we press ^Z (CTRL+Z) button or F6 button to save the file. After pressing enter key computer will show a message like 1 file(s) copied. This means that file is stored in the disk. Suppose we don't want to save the file or we just want to abort from file creation job, then we simply press ^C (CTRL+C) button to abort without saving the file, intend of pressing ^Z button.

Notes:-  1. Never forget to give a suitable filename
              2. You can use extension as .TXT for denoting the file as Text file.

8. TYPE:- This command is used to display the contents or text of any file to the display device.

Syntax:- C:\> TYPE <Filename>
A:\>TYPE GULAB.TXT
A clock in a office can never get stolen
Too many employees watch it all the time

9. COPY :-  Copy command is used for copy any file to another location or to copy the files to another directory. This command may also be used for copying any file to another disk with different file name.

Syntax:-  C:\> COPY <Source filename> <Target file name>
 C:\>COPY ROSE.TXT ROSE.MSG
         1 file(s) copied

TO copy a file from hard disk to floppy disk
C:\>COPY Rose.txt A:
      1 file(s) copied
To copy a file from Floppy Disk to Hard disk
A:\>COPY LOTUS.TXT C:\
1 file(s) copied

10. REN:- (Rename) This command is used to change the name of any file or directory.

Syntax:- C:\> REN <Source filename> <Target filename>
C:\>REN ROSE.TXT GULBAL.TXT
If we get successfully C:\ that means filename or directory name is get changed. Either it will show the error message.

To changing the filename present in floppy disk
C:\>REN A:\ROSE.TXT GULAB.TXT
Note that you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination.

11. DEL:- This command is used for erasing any file from the disk.

Syntax:- C:\> DEL <Filename>
C:\>DEL LOTUS.TXT
If it successfully erase the file from dosk then C:\> prompt will be appear, either computer will show an error message.

Note:- /P option is used for permission before deleting the file.


Directory related commands

12. MD:- (Make Directory)- This command allows to create a new directory.

Syntax:- C:\> MD <Dirname>
C:\> MD REPORT
C:\>

Now this directory can be used for keeping various sort of reports. Under this directory we can create another directory which is known as subdirectory.

13. CD:- (Change Directory):- We can enter or exit from any directory using this command.

Syntax:- To access any directory
C:\> CD <Directory name>
C:\> CD REPORT
C:\REPORT>

Prompt will change with the directory name. If we keep two dots after CD command than we will exit from the directory.

Syntax:-C:\> CD..
C:\REPORT> CD..
C:\>

14. RD:-(Remove directory):- This command is used when we want to remove any unusable directory form our disk.

Syntax:- C:\> RD <Directory name>
C:\> RD REPORT


15. PATH:- This command is used for display or sets directories for executable files.

Synatx:- C:\> PATH
This command display current path settings.

C:\> PATH=C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;C:\WINDOWS\;C:\TC
this command will sets the directories windows, the command subfolder of windows and TC folder for executable files. Operating system will look for executable files in these directories.

NOTE:- If we need any help for above DOS commands the we put a '/?' symbol after writting the command at DOS prompt .

     Example:- C:\> DIR/?  or  C:\> COPY/?


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